A scientific website about agriculture and phytopathology

Biology 211: Taxonomy of Flowering Plants

World Wide Flowering Plant

Family Identification

Family Listing
Information About This Identification Process
Sample Data and Description of the Search Algorithm
CGI Source Code


Select the characters (states) that are present in the specimen being identified. Press Submit when ready to determine possible families. Pressing "Back" at the top of the window brings you back to this page keeping your character selections.



Plant Habit     عادات گیاهی
  1. Woody plants (excl. suffrutices)     گیاهان چوبی                      
  2. Herbaceous plants (incl. suffrutices)     گیاهان علفی
  3. Aquatic plants, leaves floating or submerged     گیاهان آبزی. برگها شناور یا زیر آب
  4. Climbers, lianas     گیاهان بالا رونده. پیچها
  5. Chlorophyll absent (parasites or saprophytes)     فاقد کلروفیل
  6. Bulb present (monocots only)     دارای پیاز
  7. Milky juice present     دارای شیرابه شیری رنگ
  8. Spiny stems or leaves     برگها یا ساقه ها تیغ دار هستند
  9. Tendrils present     دارای پیچک 
 10. Cladodes or phyllodes (modified branches or petioles)     دارای ساقه های برگ مانند . شاخه ها یا دمبرگهای تغییر یافته

 11. Hairs glandular     
 12. Hairs stellate (also 2-armed, branched and tufted)     
 13. Hairs stellate (not 2-armed, branched and tufted)
 14. Hairs 2-armed or t-shaped, non-glandular     
 15. Hairs branched     
 16. Hairs tufted, non-glandular     
 17. Hairs peltate or scale-like
 18. Hairs vesicular or bladder-like
 19. Hairs stinging
 20. Cystoliths present (dicots only)

 21. Leaves opposite or verticillate
 22. Leaves alternate (excl. distichous monocots)
 23. Leaves distichous (monocots only)
 24. Leaves equitant (e.g. Iris)
 25. Leaves peltate
 26. Leaves not compound
 27. Leaves compound
 28. Leaves pinnately compound (4 or more leaflets)
 29. Leaves ternately compound (3 leaflets)
 30. Leaves palmately compound (4 or more leaflets)
 31. Venation pinnate or hardly visible in leaves or leaflets (incl. no. 30)
 32. Venation invisible or leaves 1-nerved (monocots only)
 33. Venation longitudinal in leaves or leaflets (incl. 3-nerved leaves)
 34. Venation palmate in leaves or leaflets
 35. Leaves or leaflets with entire margin (without any lobes or teeth)
 36. Leaves or leaflets lobed or divided
 37. Leaves or leaflets dentate, serrate, crenate, etc.
 38. Epidermis of leaf papillose (dicots only)
 39. Leaves with pellucid or glandular dots or lines
 40. Leaves with a ligule
 41. Stipules absent
 42. Stipules present (only the scars may be left)

 43. Flowers solitary
 44. Inflorescence a raceme, simple and monopodial
 45. Inflorescence a spike, simple and monopodial
 46. Inflorescence a corymb, simple and monopodial
 47. Inflorescence an umbel, simple and monopodial
 48. Inflorescence a fascicle, simple and monopodial
 49. Inflorescence a head, simple and monopodial
 50. Inflorescence simple and sympodial (cyme, dichasium etc.)
 51. Inflorescence compound, sympodial or monopodial (panicle, thyrsus etc.)

 52. Flowers bisexual
 53. Flowers unisexual
 54. Flowers actinomorphic
 55. Flowers zygomorphic or irregular
 56. Receptacle small (ovary superior)
 57. Receptacle enlarged, united with the ovary, totally or partially covering it
 58. Receptacle enlarged, totally or partially free from the ovary (super. to inf.)
 59. Receptacle enlarged, conical or hemispherical (ovaries superior)
 60. Disc present (annular or separate glands)
 61. Disc absent
 62. Perianth segments 0
 63. Perianth segments 1
 64. Perianth segments 2
 65. Perianth segments 3
 66. Perianth segments 4
 67. Perianth segments 5
 68. Perianth segments 6
 69. Perianth segments more than 6
 70. Perianth of similar segments
 71. Perianth of calyx and corolla
 72. Sepals 0 (incl. a cupular calyx without lobes)
 73. Sepals 1
 74. Sepals 2
 75. Sepals 3
 76. Sepals 4
 77. Sepals 5
 78. Sepals more than 5
 79. Sepals all free from one another
 80. Sepals connate (at least two of them)
 81. Sepals imbricate or contorted
 82. Sepals valvate
 83. Petals 0 (incl. a cupular corolla without lobes)
 84. Petals 1
 85. Petals 2
 86. Petals 3
 87. Petals 4
 88. Petals 5
 89. Petals 6
 90. Petals 7
 91. Petals 8
 92. Petals 9
 93. Petals 10
 94. Petals more than 10
 95. Petals all free from one another
 96. Petals connate (at least two of them)
 97. Petals imbricate
 98. Petals contorted
 99. Petals valvate
100. Corona present, or scales in the throat
101. Anther 1, fertile
102. Anthers 2, fertile
103. Anthers 3, fertile
104. Anthers 4, fertile
105. Anthers 5, fertile
106. Anthers 6, fertile
107. Anthers 7, fertile
108. Anthers 8, fertile
109. Anthers 9, fertile
110. Anthers 10, fertile
111. Anthers more than 10, fertile
112. Stamens the same number as and opposite the petals or alternate with the sepals
113. Flowers obdiplostemonous
114. Anthers dorsifixed or ventrifixed
115. Anthers basifixed
116. Anthers introrse
117. Anthers extrorse
118. Anthers opening by longitudinal slits
119. Anthers opening by apical pores
120. Anthers opening by valves
121. Anthers 1-locular at anthesis
122. Stamens free from the corolla
123. Stamens inserted on the corolla
124. Filaments not connate
125. Filaments connate into 1 tube or bundle
126. Filaments connate into separate bundles
127. Anthers with a conspicuous appendage
128. Pollen coherent into pollinia or wax-like masses
129. Staminodia present (in male or perfect flowers only)
130. Gynophore
131. Styles absent, stigmas sessile
132. Styles more than 1, free (carpels connate)
133. Style 1, or styles more or less connate (carpels free or connate)
134. Style gynobasic
135. Carpel 1
136. Carpels 2 (free or united)
137. Carpels 3 (free or united)
138. Carpels 4 (free or united)
139. Carpels 5 (free or united)
140. Carpels more than 5 (free or united)
141. Ovary 1-locular (incl. apocarpae)
142. Ovary 2-locular
143. Ovary 3-locular
144. Ovary 4-locular
145. Ovary 5-locular
146. Ovary with more than 5 locules
147. Ovule 1 in each loculus
148. Ovules 2 in each loculus
149. Ovules more than 2 in each loculus
150. Carpels free from each other or carpel 1
151. Ovules parietal, carpels connate
152. Ovules axile, carpels connate
153. Ovules attached to central axis or ventrally if carpels free or if carpel 1
154. Ovules attached to the apex of the ovary
155. Ovules attached to the base of the ovary

156. Fruit a capsule (incl. pod, follicle etc.)
157. Fruit a nut (incl. achene, loment, schizocarp etc.)
158. Fruit fleshy (berry, drupe, pome)
159. Fruit with 1 seed
160. Fruit with 2 seeds
161. Fruit with more than 2 seeds
162. Fruits with wings
163. Fruits with hairs for dispersal by wind
164. Fruits with retrorsely barbed, hook-like or glochidiate hairs
165. Fruits with spines and hooks
166. Seeds with wings
167. Seeds with hairs
168. Arillus or aril-like organs present
169. Embryo straight
170. Embryo curved
171. Cotyledons folded or crumpled
172. Seeds without endosperm
173. Seeds with endosperm
174. Endosperm ruminate

175. African
176. Asian
177. Australian and Oceanian
178. European
179. North American
180. South American

Biology 211 Home Page

+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه شانزدهم اردیبهشت 1388ساعت 9:21  توسط jacob  | 


بيماريهاي گياهان جنگلي

Forest trees diseases



بيماريهاي برگي:

Foliar diseases


۲- لكه تاولي برگ بلوط:

عامل: Taphrina caerulescens


بلوط آبي (water oak) ، بلوط پستي (post oak)، بلوط قرمز (red oak)، و بلوط زنده (live oak)  اغلب توسط اين قارچ آلوده مي شوند. از ميان اينها بلوط آبي (water oak) بيشترين حساسيت را دارد.


علائم: يك برگ آلوده داراي برامدگي هايي در سطح رويي خود است. اين برامدگي ها داراي رنگ سبز روشن تا زيتوني هستند كه بعدا قهوه اي مي شوند. در حالي كه بقيه ي برگ سبز باقي مي ماند. در موارد شديد شدن بيماري برگ ريزي اندكي مشاهده مي شود.


چرخه زندگي:

-         زمستان گذراني: در فلس جوانه ها

-         در بهار هنگامي كه جوانه ها در حال باز شدن هستند،  اسپورها جوانه زده  و از طريق روزنه ها وارد برگ مي شوند. وجود دماي معتدل و باران ملايم يا شبنم در خلال باز شدن جوانه ها براي آلودگي ضروري است.

-         اين قارچ در فضاي زير روزنه فعاليت مي كند. در اثر اين فعاليت هيپرتوفي ايجاد شده و برامدگي ها ايجاد مي شوند.

-         ريسه هاي  قارچ در بين سلول هاي ميزبان توليد آسك مي كنند كه پس از بزرگ شدن كوتيكول را پاره مي كنند و بر روي سطح برگ ظاهر مي شوند.

-         پس از پاره شدن آسك ، آسكوسپورها آزاد شده  و پس از جوانه زني  ايجاد آلودگي ثانويه مي كنند.



1-  كنترل شيميايي براي ارقام خيلي حساس و ارقام با ارزش: استفاده از قارچ كش هاي حاوي مس در بهار قبل از باز شدن جوانه ها.


Oak Leaf Blister

Fungus – Taphrina caerulescens

Water oak, post oak, red oak and live oak are most often infected with the oak leaf blister fungus. Of these, water oak is the most susceptible.

A leaf infected with the fungus will have a distinct bulge on its upper surface. The surface opposite the bulge has a light green-to-olive, velvety fungal growth. With age this growth becomes dark brown-to-black in color. The raised area on the leaf is first light green but turns brown with age. The remainder of the leaf retains a green color. Little defoliation occurs unless infection is extensive.

The fungus overwinters on bud scales. In the spring as buds begin to open, overwintering fungal spores germinate during favorable weather and infect developing leaves. Mild temperatures and light rain or dew during bud opening are necessary for infection to occur.

Chemical control of oak leaf blister is not often suggested except for very susceptible and valuable trees growing in humid areas. Treat trees that have a history of severe damage from oak leaf blister with a copper-containing fungicide in the spring just before bud opening. Fungicides applied after infection occurs are not effective.










+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه بیستم اسفند 1387ساعت 6:57  توسط jacob  | 


بيماريهاي گياهان جنگلي

Forest trees diseases



بيماريهاي برگي:

Foliar diseases



عامل: قارچي از آسكوميست ها.

فرم جنسي : Gnomonia sp.

فرم غیر جنسي: Gloeosporium sp.


 اگرچه تمام تمام ارقام بلوط حساس هستند ولي گونه post oak  از همه حساس تر است.


علائم: لكه هاي نامنظم كوچكي كه در امتداد حاشيه برگ يا رگبرگ ها قرار مي گيرند. در موارد شديد بيماري ريزش برگ ها ممكن است رخ دهد.

خسارت اين بيماري در شرايطي كه در هنگام  متورم شدن جوانه ها و ظهور برگ ها باران ملايم يا شبنم وجود داشته باشد بسيار زياد است.


چرخه بيماري:

-         زمستان گذراني: پريتسيوم در برگ هاي ريخته شده.

-         در فصل بهار با آزاد شدن آسكوسپور هاي دو سلولي آلودگي برگ ها به صورت نكروزه شدن برگ ها آغاز مي شود.

-         سپس بر روي اين لكه هاي نكروز فرم غير جنسي قارچ به صورت آسروول ظاهر مي شود كه داراي كنيدي هاي تك سلولي و شفاف است و فاقد خار يا seta است. اين كنيدي ها آلودگي ثانويه را ايجاد مي كنند.



1-     به  دليل زمستان گذراني قارچ در برگ هاي ريخته  شده ، بهداشت باغي  در كنترل بيماري ضروري است.

2-     در موارد ضروري استفاده از قارچ كش هاي حافظتي موثر است. سم پاشي بايد در بهار هنگام ظهور برگ ها انجام شود و در صورت نياز به فاصله 7-14 روز تكرار شود.



Fungus – Gnomonia sp. (teleomorph),  Gloeosporium sp. (Anamorph)

All oaks are susceptible; however, post oak appears to be the most vulnerable. Systems of anthracnose include small irregular spots formed along the leaf margin or leaf veins. During periods of severe infection premature defoliation may occur. Anthracnose rarely kills, but trees severely defoliated annually become weakened.

The fungus overwinters in infected leaves. In the spring airborne fungal spores are produced that infect developing leaves. Soon after infection, leaves become necrotic and secondary spore production occurs. This cycle may continue as long as weather conditions favor fungal development. Damage from this disease is most severe when light rain or dew occurs during budbreak and leaf expansion.

Sanitation is necessary in controlling anthracnose since the pathogen survives from year to year in fallen leaves. Rake leaves when they fall rather than waiting for full leaf drop. Destroy leaves from diseased trees or place in a compost pile to undergo heating to kill the fungus. A protective fungicide may be required if damage persists. Apply necessary sprays in the spring during leaf emergence and repeat in 7 to 14 days as needed.













+ نوشته شده در  شنبه هفدهم اسفند 1387ساعت 0:0  توسط jacob  |